Diamonds will last forever
Diamond, the hardest substance found in nature. Its hardness exceeds that of corundum by 4 times and quartz by 8 times.
What is the reason for diamond’s high hardness?
In the 1st Century AD, diamond was first mentioned in the literature. In the 1,600 years that followed, no one knew the true composition of a diamond. The “material” of diamonds was only discovered in the second half the 18th century.
French chemist Lavoisier (1743) and other scientists conducted experiments during the 70s and 90s in the 18th century on burning diamonds with oxygen. The result was a carbon dioxide mixture, which is an oxygen and carbon combination. substance. Carbon here is from diamond. Finally, these tests proved that carbon is the main component of diamond.
Although diamonds are composed of carbon, the reason for their high hardness is still unknown. Carbon is used in the production of pencil lead. But graphite has a softer mineral than human nails.
What makes diamond and graphite different?
William Bragg (1862-1942), British physicist and his son, answered this question only in 1913. Bragg (1862-1942) and his son used X rays to study diamond crystals and observe the atom arrangement. They discovered that every carbon atom was tightly combined with four surrounding carbon atoms in a diamond crystal to form an intricate three-dimensional pattern. This unique structure has never been observed in other minerals. This dense structure gives diamonds a density of 3.5g/cm, about 1.5 times that of graphite. This dense structure is what gives diamonds their greatest hardness. Other words, diamonds are formed when carbon atoms are squeezed.
It is the hardest material in nature. As such, it has many industrial applications, including fine abrasive products, high-hardness tools, different drill bits, wire drawing dies, etc. It is also a component of many precision tools.
Diamonds have many other excellent properties including super-hardness. It is called the “king” of hardness and the “king” of gems. Diamond crystals are angled at 54deg.44’8″. In the 1950s the United States successfully created synthetic diamonds by using graphite. Now, synthetic diamonds can be found in many areas of production and daily life. However, it is difficult to create large particles.
Graphite Graphite Graphite is a dark grey opaque fine-scale solid with metallic luster. It has an oily feel and is electrically conductive. The graphite atoms form a planar, layered structure. Because the bonds between layers are relatively weak, it’s easy to separate and slide between them. Main functions: making pencils, electrodes, tram cables, etc.
Fullerene was discovered as the fourth carbon crystal in 1985. It is found after graphite, linear carbon and diamond. Fullerene was discovered as a new industrial material. Its hardness exceeds diamond and its stiffness (ductility), is superior to steel.
It’s 100 times stronger, can conduct electrical current, is more conductive than Copper, and weighs only 1/6 the weight of copper.
The columnar and tubular molecules can also be called bucky tube or carbon nanotubes. C60 is aromatic, soluble with benzene and sauce red. It can be produced by resisting heating graphite or using the arc method. C60 may be a superlubricant due to its lubricity. C60 with metal doping has superconductivity. It is a promising superconducting substance. C60 is also used in many different fields, including semiconductors.
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