|Chemical Classification||Native element|
Graphite Physical Properties
|Color||Steel gray and black|
|Luster||Metallic and sometimes earthy|
|Cleavage||Perfect in one direction|
|Mohs hardness||One to two|
|Density||2.09 – 2.23 g/cm3 (Measured) 2.26 g/cm3 (Calculated)|
Graphite Optical properties
|Color / Pleochroism||Strong|
|Optic Sign||Uniaxial ()|
The appearance and use of graphite
The reduction of carbon compounds causes the degradation of deposits containing carbon. It is a main component of igneous rocks. This occurs due to the reduction sedimentary carbon compound in metamorphic rock. Also, it can be found in meteorites and magmatic rocks. Quartz, calcite and mica are minerals that have a close relationship to this mineral. The main mineral exporters are China, Mexico Canada Brazil Madagascar.
Synthetic graphite consists of graphitic (carbon) carbon. It is produced by CVD, at temperatures above 2500 K., either through the decomposition or supersaturation of carbides.
Synthetic graphite and “artificial Graphite” are often used interchangeably. Synthetic graphite is more preferred due to the fact that their crystals are believed to be composed of macromolecules of carbon. The term CVD is also used to describe carbide residues, pyrolytic and synthetic graphite. The definition is the same for this common usage. Acheson and electrophotography are two of the most important synonyms for synthesized graphite.
The Applied Area
Natural graphite has many uses, such as refractory, batteries and steelmaking. It is also used for brake pads, expanded graphite or casting surfaces, and in lubricants.
The graphite used in crucibles was very large, but the graphite required for carbon-magnesite blocks was not as large. These and other products now have greater flexibility in the size of flake graphite required.
Over the past 30 year, graphite use in batteries has grown. In the major battery technologies, both natural and synthetic materials may be used for electrode construction.
The lithium-ion battery used in the new car, for instance, contains almost 40 kilograms of graphite.
The main use of natural graphite for steelmaking is to increase carbon content in the molten steel. It can be used also to lubricate extrusion moulds.
The use of natural amorphous flake and fine flakes graphite for brake linings on heavy vehicles is increasing as asbestos is being replaced.
Foundries clean molds with amorphous, thin flake like coatings. If you paint it inside the mold then let it air dry, it will leave behind a fine graphite layer that helps to separate the castings after the molten steel has cooled.
Synthetic graphite has many uses
High focus pyrolytic (HOPG), the best synthetic graphite, is of the highest quality. In scientific research it is used to calibrate scanners and scanning probe microscopes.
The electrodes melt scrap steel and iron in electric arc kilns (most steel furnaces) and, sometimes, direct reduced iron. The mixture of coal tar and petroleum coke is used to make them.
Graphite Carbon electrodes are also employed in electrolytic aluminium smelting. Synthetic electrodes are used at a small scale in the discharge (EDM) process for making plastic injection moulds.
Special grades, such as the gilsocarbon graphite, can be utilized as a neutron moderator and matrix in nuclear reactors. In the recommended fusion-reactor, it is recommended that low-cross section neutron graphite be used.
The carbon nanotubes can also be found in heat-resistant composites, such as the reinforced carbon-carbon material (RCC). Commercial structures made from carbon fiber graphite materials include golf shafts, bicycle frame, sports car body panels and the body panel of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner.
To prevent static build-up, modern smokeless powders have a graphite coating.
At least three different radar-absorbing materials contain it. Sumpf, Schornsteinfeger and rubber are mixed to form U-shaped Snorkels. This reduces the radar cross section. The F-117 Nighthawk floor tiles were also used for secretly hitting fighter jets.
Graphite Composites are used in the LHC beam collection as high-energy particle absorbers.
The most common way to recover graphite occurs when synthetic graphite electrodes are made and then cut up into small pieces, or are discarded by turning them on a lathe. Or when the electrodes have been used all the way down to the electrode holders. Replace the old with new electrodes. However, most of the older electrodes are still present. After crushing and sizing the graphite, it is primarily used to raise the carbon content of steel molten. Some refractories contain refractory material, but these are not usually caused by graphite. For example, the bulk materials (such a carbon magnesia containing only 15 to 25 percent graphite), usually contain very small amounts of graphite. Carbon magnesite can be recovered.
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