What is Bismuth oxide and its application

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What is bismuth oxid? Bismuth oxid The molecular formula of the inorganic compound is Bi2O3. The pure product comes in three types: a, b, and d. a type has a yellow monoclinic structure, relative densities of 8.9 and 825, melting points of 825, and is soluble only in acid. It can be easily converted to metallic Bismuth using hydrogen, hydrocarbons etc. It is a special material that has a cubic fluorite structure. The crystal lattice of d-Bi2O3 is void in 1/4, which gives it a high oxygen conductivity. Bismuth Oxide is mainly used for electronic ceramic powder materials. It can also be used as photoelectric materials. Bismuth is an essential additive in electronic ceramic materials. Its purity must be at least 99.15%. Main application objects include ceramic capacitors, zinc oxide varistors, and ferrite magnet materials.

Bismuth Oxide preparation
1. Dropwise, add to the bismuth-nitrate solution at 80-90degC a sodium hydroxide-free aqueous aqueous mixture and mix. The solution stays alkaline and the white, volume-swelling, bismuth oxide hydroxide Bi(OH3) precipitates. This solution is heated, stirred and dehydrated to yellow. Bismuth trioxide . After filtering, drying and washing the bismuth oxide is obtained.
2. Mix them under a nitrogen-filled atmosphere by adding dropwise a 1,5 mol/L sodium aqueous hydroxide without carbon dioxide solution to a bismuth solution (0.1 mol/L) dissolved into 1 mol/L of nitric solution (80-90deg C). The solution is alkaline even after precipitation. The white volume-expanded Bismuth Oxide Hydrate Bi(OH)3 does precipitate, but it dehydrates and turns into a light yellow Bismuth Trioxide when stirred for some time in the hot water solution. Decant the solution and wash it 15 times without adding air or carbon dioxide. Then filter and dry.
3. The graphite electrode is placed between the metal surface and the graphite electrode. An arc is created under oxygen flow. For a continuous supply of oxygen to the crucible, it should be placed inside a large vessel. The reaction is carried out at a temperature of 750-800degC and the b bismuth trioxide is generated quickly with a purity level of 99.8%. A high-temperature phase B-type product is obtained by quenching the product in water or a metal plate.
4. Stir vigorously as you add the acidic Bi(NO3)3*5H2O (20g dissolved 2mol/L in HNO3) solution to the excess sodium-carbonate solution. Filter, wash, and then dry the Bi2O3CO3 crystalline precipitate. Place it in an aluminium boat and heat the air in it at 650K over about 1.5 hours.
5. Burn the Bismuth Subnitrate between 400 and 500 to remove NO3 ions for around (34h).
After cooling down, all the resulting products will turn lemon yellow.

Bismuth Oxide is used in the application of Bismuth oxide
Bismuth oxide is used to prepare bismuth sal; it can also be used in electronic ceramic powder materials, electrolytes, photoelectric materials, high-temperature Superconducting Materials, and as a catalyst. As an additive used in electronic ceramic materials, it is important that bismuth dioxide be at least 99.15% pure. Main application objects include zinc oxide varistors; ceramic capacitors and ferrite magnet materials. Other applications include glaze rubber compounding, medicine, red glass compounding, etc.

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