High purity vanadium crystals available in various standard and custom dimensions and orientations for optical, electronic, thin film, and other high technology applications. Materials are produced using crystal growth methods including Czochralski, Bridgman, floating zone, gas phase processes and can be manufactured in forms such as rods, discs, wafers or custom shapes.
Vanadium is an element that was discovered in 1801 by Andres Manuel del Rio of Mexico City, who noticed a variety of colours in his experiments with oxidized iron. Del Rio initially thought that the compounds he prepared were chromium, but after sending samples to his friend Professor Nils Gabriel Sefstrom, in Sweden, he was able to confirm the existence of the metallic element.
The name of the element was chosen by Sefstrom in memory of a Swedish goddess named Vanadis, a name he believed to have been inspired by the beautiful red and yellow colors of the compound he was working with. The metal itself is a silvery-grey malleable, ductile transition metal that is used primarily as an alloy for strengthening steels.
It is a hard and corrosion-resistant material because of a protective oxide layer on the surface that prevents further oxidation. It is not a common natural element, but it can be obtained through the processing of 65 minerals and fossil fuel deposits.
It has several important industrial applications, including the production of a vanadium redox battery for energy storage and as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. It is also a valuable additive to specialty steel alloys. It is also used to bond titanium to steel for strength and durability in aerospace applications. It is a common ingredient in rust-resistant, spring and high speed tool steels such as armour plate, axles, piston rods and crankshafts.