Titanium carbide Overview
Titanium carbide has the chemical formula TiC and a molecular weight of 59.89. Gray metallic lattice solid with a face-centered cubic structure. Melting point: 3140+-90, boiling point: 4820, relative densities 4.93. Hardness is greater that 9. Water insoluble, but soluble with nitric and aqua regia. It is stable with air below 800 and eroded in air above 2000. It can react with O2 pure at 1150C.
Titanium carbide ceramics is a typical transition metal carbide. TiC’s unique properties are due to its ionic, metallic and covalent bonding, which is mixed together in a single crystal structure. TiC has many unique properties due to its crystal structure. These include high hardness, high melt point, wear resistance, and electrical conductivity.
Preparation of Titanium Carbide
Method: A mixture of carbon and titanium powder is prepared by hydrogen-reduction TiO2 in high temperature or by pressing TiO2 and Carbon powder into blocks. Then, the mixture is heated in the electric oven to 2300-2700°C and carbonized under H2 or CO. The hard, crystalline powder of TiC is produced by reacting titanium dioxide with carbon black above 1800degC. Cobalt and nickel are used to compact it for heat-resistant parts and cutting tools. Cutting tools are more brittle, and it’s lighter. Sintered carbide is less likely to produce grooves when combined with the tungsten carbide in tool materials.
Property of titanium carbide
Theoretically TiC contains 20.05 percent carbon. It is a metallic gray. It is chemically resistant and inert towards hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric acids. TiC dissolves readily in oxidizing chemical solutions, like aqua regia, nitric and hydrofluoric acids, or hydrofluoric acetic acid. It dissolves also in an alkaline oxidation melt. Nitrogen is formed above -1500degC in a nitrogenous air. TiC can be attacked by chlorine and oxidizes in the air when heated to high temperatures.
The elastic modulus for TiC is 309 706 MPa. The material sintered from 2600 to 3000 has a fracture modulus between 499.8 and 843.2MPa at room temperatures. The thermal modulus is 107.78 – 116.96mpa for 982 and 54.4-63.92mpa for 2200. The melting point of TiC is 3160 degrees C. At room temperature, the resistivity is 180 to 250 It is a good conductor for high temperatures. The thermal coefficient of expansion between 593degC and room temperature is 4.12×10-6/degF. Thermal conductivity is 0.04 CAL/cm S/degC.
Titan carbide ceramics
1. Multiphase materials : titanium carbide is a super hard material. It can be produced with TiN and Al2O3 as well as other raw materials to produce various multiphase ceramic materials. They have excellent chemical stability. This makes them the best choice for cutting tool, wear resistant parts. Titanium carbide ceramics can be used for cutting high-speed wire-regulating wheels, carbon steel and other materials due to their excellent oxidation resistance. They also do not cause crescent wear when they are in contact with steel. The use of multiphase ceramics containing titanium carbide has been widespread.
2. Coating material: Titanium carbide as a surface coat is an extremely wear-resistant material. By combining some carbides with diamond surfaces by physical or chemcial means, metals and alloys can be formed. At high temperatures, this interface reaction between the carbon atoms of the diamond surface and the metal carbides is stable. These carbides are not only able to bond with diamonds, but they can also infiltrate matrix metals, enhancing the adhesion between matrix metal and diamond. Tool life can increase by up to three times with titanium carbide film.
3. The research on nuclear fusion reactors has shown that titanium carbide and composite (TiN+TiC) coating materials, after chemical heat treatments, create a tritium-resistant layer of permeability on the surface titanium carbide. This layer can resist hydrogen ion exposure and withstand thermal cycles and large temperature gradients.
4. The ceramics made of titanium carbide are good for optical purposes.
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