Single-layer Graphene is a two-dimensional honeycomb graphite made of one layer of carbon. It’s the thinnest, but stiffest material (the fracture resistance is 200 times higher than steel). It is almost completely transparent and absorbs only 2.3% light. The thermal conductivity of this material is up to 5300 W/m. K is more than carbon nanotubes or diamond. The resistivity is about 0.96×10-6 O.cm and lower than copper or silver. Graphene currently has the world’s small resistivity. The graphene’s novel feature is that, in the absence doping, it is the Fermi levels located at the junction of the conduction band with the valence. At this point the electron’s mass is equal to 0, and so appears as a Dirac. Fermions can have a carrier conductivity of up to 200,000 cm2/V. They also have a high current density. The graphene conductivity is still present even without carrier transmission. S=e2/h. The Hall effect at room temperature expands its original temperature range ten-fold. It also shows unique carrier characteristics. The unique electronic properties of graphene make it possible to confirm relativistic quantum-electrodynamic effects, which are hard to observe with particle physics.
Graphene, the most suitable material for creating nanoelectronics devices. The devices made from it are smaller and consume less power. They also transmit electrons more quickly. Due to its high electron transfer speed and excellent characteristics of electron transmission (no scattering), it can be used to make transistors with high frequency (upto THz). The graphene is stable even with just one hexagonal circle at the nanometer-scale, and this is very important for developing molecular electronic devices. Single-electronic components prepared by electron beam printing and etching technology may break through the limits of traditional electronic technology, and have excellent application prospects in the fields of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, memory, and sensors, and are expected to be the development of ultra-high-speed computer chips. The medical industry will also benefit greatly from this breakthrough.
Graphene films with a single layer can be used to create microscopic filters for decomposing gases. This thin film can support molecules that are observed and analyzed by electron microscopes. This will be a great help to the medical community in developing new medical technologies. Graphene is able to detect gases with an external noise and accurately identify individual molecules. It has potential applications as chemical sensors and mollecular probes.
Single-layer graphene is widely used as a semiconductor electronic package due to its excellent properties in terms of electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties.
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