This method is a technology that deposits a thick, solid coating on the surface a substrate using a gas-phase reaction. Due to the fact that the entire reaction in this method is based upon thermodynamics the CVD film offers good adhesion as well as coatingability. It also has a dense film layer and a high film-base adhesive strength.
The processing temperature of this method (generally between 9001200) is high. The high temperatures cause the matrix of steel to soften. Vacuum quenching is required after the processing. The workpiece is easily deformed and the process is complex. This results in a decrease in the bending resistance of the matrix. Decrease, and harmful waste gases and waste liquids will be produced during preparation, which can easily cause industrial pollution. This is in contradiction to the green industry that the country advocates today.
2. Physical vapor deposition (PVD)
This method utilizes physical processes, such as thermal, sputtering and glow discharge discharge to deposit desired coatings on the substrate surface. This includes sputtering and ion technology, as well as evaporation. The two latter PVD techniques are more widely used today for the preparation of ceramic coatings.
A PVD film’s brittleness makes it easy to peel and crack. It is also a linear process, with poor adhesion, and coating properties. The workpiece has to be rotated or swung during processing. This increases the difficulty in designing the vacuum chamber. There are problems such as an ineffective coating.
3. Liquid deposition
This is a chemical wet film-forming method. The basic principle is that by replacing the ligand between the ions of the solution, the hydrolysis balance movement of the metallic compound is driven. This results in the deposition on the substrate of a thin layer coating. The method works under low-temperature/room-temperature conditions. No heat treatment is needed, nor is expensive processing equipment.
The main disadvantage is that the liquid phase reaction is highly unstable and has many influences.
4. Thermal spraying
This technique involves heating a linear material or powder to a molten, semi-melted, state with a heat source, such as a flame or plasma. High-speed droplets are formed and sprayed on the substrate, creating a coating. They can also be used as a protective layer, to restore or strengthen the surface properties of the material and to reduce the size of parts that have been reduced by wear, corrosion, or processing tolerances. Plasma spraying, flame spraying and arc-spraying techniques are all part of the method.
5. In-situ Synthesis
The second phase of reinforcement is synthesized in situ without any pollution at the interface. It is also evenly distributed. The application of in-situ technology to metal and ceramic-based material has increased with the development.
6. Other synthetic methods
Other synthetic methods include liquid EDM surface enhancement, sol-gel, melting and cast methods, self-propagating heat-temperature synthesis and thermal spraying. The preparation method for carbonized-based cermet can be selected according to the needs and conditions of industrial production.
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