The shape memory alloy has many functional properties, including high strength, corrosion resistant, biocompatibility and non-toxicity. It is also a promising material for medical applications. Nitinol’s shape memory alloy can only be reshaped by adding temperature between 20 and 300 degrees Celsius after it has been deformed during the low temperature phase. Its expansion is over 20%, its fatigue life is 107 times greater, and it has better damping characteristics than normal metals.
Nitinol Wires Classification
1. In 1940 gold bowwire, cobalt chrome alloy wire, and stainless steel wire.
2. Martensite stabilized alloys: mainly nickel-titanium were produced after deformation to the martensite condition in 1960. This arch wire is flexible and has a low rigidity. It can also produce a lower correction force.
3. In 1980, Japanese nickel-titanium and Chinese nickel titanium alloy arch wires showed austenite states in all conditions.
4. Martensite activated alloy of nickel-titanium was developed in 1990. TTR is below the oral cavity or very close, it exists at room temperatures as a multi-element, and the material is easy to form.
5. Gradedthermodynamics: Increased thermodynamic Nickel-Titanium Alloy: TTR is about 40degC higher than the oral temperatures, so when the nickel titanium archwire in the dental cavity is still in the multi-component stage, the archwire remains relatively soft.
Nitinol as a clinical application:
1. It is used to align and level the dentition of patients as early as possible. Nitinol wires, with their superelasticity and shape-memory properties and lower stress/strain curves, are included as part of the initial stages in treatment systems.
2. Nitinol extension and push springs are used for orthodontics. They are elastic and ideal for orthodontic treatment.
3. Dr. Soma, along with others, developed the LH arch wire in Japan. “LH” comes from “Low Hyperstratesis”, which means that when the archwire is ligated on the bracket it produces when the archwire is activated. The stress difference is small when compared to the stress created when the archwire slowly returns back to its original form when the tooth moves.
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