Overview of Nano diamond
The nano-diamonds, also known as diamond nanoparticles, are diamonds smaller than 1 micron in diameter and can be created by an explosive or meteorite strike. Due to its low cost, ease of large-scale synthetic, surface functionalization, high biocompatibility and easy synthesis, nano diamond has been extensively studied in the electronic, biological and quantum engineering areas.
Structure of nanodiamond
It is important to consider three main aspects of the structure and function of diamond nanoparticles. Many diffraction experiments have shown that diamond nanoparticles are either spherical, elliptic or both. The diamond cage is the core of diamond nanoparticles. It is mostly made of carbon. Although the structure is very similar, the diamond nanoparticles’ surface is almost identical to graphite. A recent study revealed that the surface is mostly made of carbon. However, it also contains a lot of phenol and pyrrole as well as sulfonic, carboxylic, and hydroxyl groups. Sometimes, there are defects in the structure of diamond-nanoparticles. Recent studies have shown that the frequency and size of nitrogen-vacancy centers decreases as the diamond nanoparticles grow in size.
Production methods for nano-diamond
Other than the explosion, other synthesis methods include: hydrothermal, ion bombing, laser bombardment; microwave plasma chemicalvapor deposition; ultrasonic and electrochemical. High-purity nanoparticles can also be produced by high-pressure and high-temperature graphite C3N4 decomposition. For commercial production of Nano Diamonds, the industry standard is detonation-synthesis. The most common explosive used to produce them is a mixture trinitrotoluene/hexose/monosaccharide.
Detonation is usually performed in a sealed chamber of stainless steel that is oxygen-free. It produces a mix of Nano diamonds as well as other graphite compound averaging 5 nanometers. Nano diamonds can only be created by detonation synthesis if there is no oxygen. This happens at pressures higher than 15 GPa, and temperatures greater then 3000K. To prevent diamond nanoparticles from forming, the oxidation system must be rapidly cooled to increase the production of Nano-diamonds. This is because diamond is the most stable phase in such conditions. Detonation synthesizers use liquid and gas coolants like water, water-based mousse and ice. Detonation results in synthesis, which is a mixture nano diamond particles and graphite carbon forms. Therefore, thorough cleaning must be done to remove all impurities. Gaseous ozone treatment and solution phase nitric acids oxidation are used most often to remove metal impurities and SP2 carbon.
Application prospect of Nano diamond
Nano diamond’s strength, hardness, thermal conductivity and biocompatibility are unique, making it a popular choice for precision polishing, lubrication and high-performance metal matrix composites.
Nano diamond is a material of rich characteristics and connotations. This is an area that presents great opportunities and challenges. Nano diamond is a product of years of research and production. This material can be used to produce raw materials, defense industry, precision polishing industry, biomedicine, electronic, mechanical and chemical industries. There are many applications for this material in our everyday lives. I believe it will have a large-scale use in other industries in the near future.
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