How to improve the electrochemical performance of nano-silicon anode materials

What can you do to improve the electrochemical performance of nano-silicon material for anodes?

The advancement and application of energy sources that are new is a strategic research area that nations all over the world give an immense importance. The battery’s performance is essential for the expansion of the new energy industry. There are numerous kinds of batteries that could be utilized as energy storage elements. The most important research direction is lithium-ion batteries, which can be used for power batteries as well as energy storage batteries. There are numerous applications. It is crucial to understand the effectiveness, cycle retention rate, capacity, and rate of lithium-ion battery cells.

The components of lithium-ion batteries comprise negative and positive electrodes as well as separators electrolytes, packaging components and separators. The development of positive and/or negative materials is connected to the improvement of efficiency of lithium-ion batteries. Materials for cathode are lithium iron phosphateand lithium cobalt oxide and ternary substances and their cycling capacity is generally less than 200mAh/g; the available anode materials are graphite, silicon-carbon materials and lithium titanate, and their cycling ratios. The capacity is typically less than 420mAh/g, and expanding the capacity of the anode material is an important research direction acknowledged worldwide. The theoretical specific capacity of nanosilicon is up to 4200mAh/g. The low efficiency of its primary function and low retention of the cycle are the two main reasons why it is not extensively used.

Presently, the following three methods are mainly employed to enhance the electrochemical properties of silicon-based anode materials:

(1) Nano silicon materials:

Nanometerization in zero-dimension can decrease the volume change of silicon. One-dimensional nanometerization reduces the change in volume radially during charging and discharging. Two-dimensional nanometerization decreases the change in volume perpendicular to the film.

(2) Silicon alloy materials:

One is inert metallics (Cu Fe, Mn and Ti, etc.). They do not react with Li+. The conductivity of the inert metal phase is high and accelerates Li+’s diffusion. In addition, it also acts as a buffer and can be used to react with lithium. For the active metals (Al Mg, Sn, Sb, etc.) of the deintercalation reaction, the lithium-intercalation potential platforms of the active metals and silicon are quite different, and the lithium compound generated by the active metal intercalation can be used as a buffer matrix.

(3) Silicon carbon anode material

Nano Silicon anode material provides complete play to the outstanding electrical conductivity and hardness of carbon materials. So far, the poor retention of cycles in nanosilicon anode materials is still one of the main issues that hinder its use. The retention rate of the nano silicon anode material could be enhanced by coating silicon particles with carbon or by converting some silicon into silicon carbide. It is obvious that silicon anode material should be used with graphite based anodes. The amount of silicon anode material needed for this purpose must not exceed 15%.

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