Is germanium dioxide acidic or alkaline
It is actually weakly acidsic. Oxides of germanium and tin; amphoteric compounds. The Edexcel specification appears to include germanium, a completely unimportant oxide, but excludes tin, a potentially more important oxide.
Germanium dioxide, although it is low-toxic in small doses, can be toxic to the kidneys at higher levels.
Germanium oxide is used in “miracle” cures and certain dietary supplements. High doses cause germanium poisoning.
Germanium monoxide GeO (also known as GeO) is a chemical compound made up of germanium, oxygen and other elements. Is germanium dioxide ionic? Germanium dioxide (also known as germanium or germanium salt) is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula GeO2. It is ampholy soluable in acid as germanium salt (II), and soluble with alkali in “tri-hydro germanate”, or in “germanate”, which contains Ge (OH) 3 ion.
What is germanium oxide made of?
Hexagonal and tetragonal hexagonal crystals share the same structure of b quartz. In rutile super-quartz, germanium has a six-coordinate structure. Germanium dioxide can be converted from one structure to another by applying high pressure. Amorphous Germanium Dioxide is transformed into six-coordinate germanium. Germanium oxide with a hexagonal structure has a higher water solubility than rutile-structured germanium dioxide. Germanic Acid is formed when Germanium Dioxide with rutile structure interacts with water. When germanium oxide and germanium powder is heated together at 1,000degC, it can produce germanium monoxide.
How is the germanium oxide prepared?
Germanium oxide is also used to produce polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) resin and other compounds of germanium. It is a raw materials for the production certain phosphors or semiconductor materials.
It is produced by melting germanium chloride or heating and oxidizing germanium. As a result of the polymerization of metal germanium, and other germanium-based compounds, optical glass phosphors can be produced. These can then be used to produce a catalyst for conversion in oil refining, dehydrogenation or gasoline ratio adjustment.
The germanium oxide is also used as a polymerization catalyst. Glass that contains germanium dioxide is highly dispersed and has high refractive indices. It can also be used to make wide-angle lenses and cameras. In the past few decades, the technology has advanced to the point that germanium dioxide can be used in many different industries, including the manufacture of high purity metal germanium, germanium compound, chemical catalysts and in the electronic industry. Like organic germanium (Ge-132), it is toxic and shouldn’t be taken.
What are the applications of germanium dioxide?
Both germanium, and its glass-oxide GeO2, are transparent for the infrared range. Infrared glass is used for night vision cameras, thermal imaging, luxury cars, and military vehicles. GeO2 has the highest mechanical strength of any other infrared-transparent glass. It is therefore ideal for military use.
The optical materials used for fibers, waveguides, and other optical devices are mixtures of silicon dioxide and Germanium dioxide (“silicon-germanium”). By controlling the ratio between elements, the refractive indices can be controlled precisely. Glass made of silicon germanium has a greater refractive index and lower viscosity than glass made from pure silicon. Germania replaces the titanium dioxide silica as the dopant of silica fibers. This eliminates the need for heat treatment which can make the fibers brittle.
Germanium oxide can be used to produce polyethylene terephthalate, and also other germanium compounds. It can be used as a source of raw materials to produce certain semiconductors and phosphors.
Germanium dioxide, also known as germanium dioxide, is used to prevent undesirable diatoms from growing in algae cultures. The contamination of diatoms that grow relatively quickly usually interferes with the growth or competition of the original algae strains. Diatoms absorb GeO2 easily and it causes germanium to replace silicon in the diatom biochemical process. This leads to a significant decrease or even complete removal of the diatom growth rate. For this application and depending on the type and stage of contamination, the concentrations of germanium oxide used in the medium are usually between 1 mg/L to 10mg/L.
A Wide-Temperature and Fast Charge/Discharge Battery with a Germanium MXene Matrix on an Anode
It is important to have a rapid charge/discharge second battery in electric vehicles and portable electronic devices. Germanium has a greater potential for fast charge/discharge than other intercalation battery types due to its metallic property and ease of alloying reaction. A 2D composite electrode made of an amorphous GeO surface bonded to TiC MXenes, which can accommodate a volume change greater than 300%, was successfully developed. The MXene matrices have an expanded interlayer area that accommodates the limited isotropic growth of the ultrathin, stress-released GeO layer. A battery with a charge/discharge speed of 3 min (20 C) was achieved due to improved e/Li conductivity in both MXene (metallic reduced Ge) and metallic reduced Ge. The battery was able to retain a high capacity of 1048.1mAh/g with a Coulombic efficacy (CE), of 99.8%, at 0.5 C. This was after 500 cycles. The capacity under 1.0 C was 929.6mAh/g and the CE was 99.6%. (0.02% capacity degeneration per cycle) After ultralong (1000 cycles) cycling. The capacity almost doubled from 372 mAh/g to 671.6mAh/g when compared with graphite (at 0.1 C), under 5.0 C, and the capacity reached 300.5mAh/g after 1000 cycles under 10.0 C. Due to the low energy barrier at the interface, a rapid alloying occurs under cold conditions. This prevents Li plating from occurring on the electrode surface. After 100 cycles, the battery showed high capacities of 631,6, 333,9, and 841,7 mAh/g in -20,-40, and-60 degC. This shows a wide tolerance to temperature. After 200 cycles, a battery with a full cell and LiNiMnCoO was able to achieve a high capacity (536.8mAh/g). It was also possible to achieve a high retention of capacity for a pouch cell with ten full cycles. This composite has a high-rate capability, as well as a wide temperature range, scalable manufacturing, and comparatively low costs.
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